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VCE物理实验
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日期:2014年01月13日
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VCE物理实验安排

List of Selection of Practical Activities

VCE Physics Unit 1-3

 

Unit 1

 

Practical 1

Using electrical meters 使用电表

Method

To measure current, voltage or both in a group of simple circuits, and use the measured values to calculate the resistance of a globe 测量电路的电流和电压并计算灯泡的电阻

Equipments:

•    variable power supply电源

•    connecting wires导线

•    two 6 V globes in holders灯泡和球型灯座

•    DC voltmeter (0–10 V) or voltage sensor电压表或电压传感器

•    DC ammeter (0–1 A) or current sensor电流表或电流传感器

•  switch 开关

 

 

 

Practical 2

Resistance and temperature 探究电阻和温度的关系

Aim

To examine the effect of temperature on the resistance of a conductor: in this case, a thermistor 探究温度对电阻的影响

Method

1   Connect the thermistor and ammeter in series with the power supply.

Connect the voltmeter in parallel with the thermistor.

Set the power supply to 2 V.

Use the 0–1 A scale of the ammeter and the 0–5 V scale on the voltmeter.

2     Switch the power pack on and record the initial ammeter and voltmeter readings.

Try warming the thermistor between your fingers and note the effect on the ammeter and voltmeter readings.

Note the effect of an increase in temperature on the resistance of the thermistor.

3     Place the thermistor and a thermometer into a beaker containing finely crushed melting ice.

(Be careful to keep the instrument clear of the bottom of the beaker.)

After several minutes, note the ammeter, voltmeter and thermometer readings.

4     Fill a beaker with hot tap water and add a small amount to the beaker containing the thermistor and thermometer. Leave it for a short while until the reading on the thermometer is stable.

Record the values shown on the ammeter, voltmeter and thermometer.

5     Add some more hot water to the beaker with the thermistor and thermometer, and once again wait until the temperature reading is relatively stable.

Read and record the values on the ammeter, voltmeter and thermometer.

Repeat until you have used all the hot water or the beaker containing the thermistor is almost full.

6     Finally, empty the beaker and fill it with hot water.

Place the thermistor and thermometer in the beaker and record the ammeter and voltmeter readings once values are relatively stable.

Equipments:

•    power supply电源

•    connecting wires导线

•    DC ammeter (0–1 A and 0–5 A) or current sensor电流表或电流传感器

•    DC voltmeter (0–15 V) or voltage sensor电压表或电压传感器

•    thermistor (about 15 W)热敏电阻

•    three 250 mL beakers烧杯

•    ice冰

•    hot tap water热水

•  thermometer (0–100°C) or broad-range temperature sensor 温度计或温度传感器

 

 

Practical 3

Parallel circuits 探究并联电路

Aim

To investigate how the addition of resistors in parallel affects the current and voltage in a circuit. 探究增减并联电路中的电阻对电路的电流和电压的影响

Method

1     Connect a circuit containing just one of the unknown resistors, the voltmeter, the ammeter (or voltage and current sensors) and the power supply, as shown above.

Set the power supply to 6 V, turn it on, and measure the potential difference and current in the circuit.

Record these results.

2     Add the second resistor to the circuit, in parallel with the first.

Measure the total potential difference in the circuit, the total current across both resistors, and the current and potential difference for each resistor.

Record these results.

3     Finally, add the third resistor, in parallel with the other two.

Once again, measure the total potential difference in the circuit, the total current across all resistors, and the current and potential difference for each resistor.

Record this last set of results.

Equipments:

•    power supply电源

•    DC voltmeter (0–10 V) or voltage sensor电压表或电压传感器

•    DC ammeter (0–1 A) or current sensor电流表或电流传感器

•    3 resistors (2 W, 5 W, 10 W, rated 2 W or more, are suitable)电阻若干

•    connecting wires导线

Note:Allocate different resistors to each practical group when using this for a practical test or to encourage students to explore their own results.

 

 

Unit 2

 

 

Practical 1

Interference of water waves 水波的干涉和衍射

Aim

To observe the diffraction of water waves through and around obstacles观察水波的干涉和衍射现象

Method

Part I: Two sources

       1   Set up the ripple tank as described in the notes accompanying your tank, using two point dippers attached to the vibrating source of the ripple tank.

       2   Switch on the vibrating source to create two sets of continuous, circular wave trains.

Observe the effect of the overlapping waves.

Try to sketch the pattern onto a sheet of paper lying on the screen below the tank.

       3   Adjust the current driving the vibrating sources so that the frequency and, hence, wavelength, changes.

Part II: One source, two gaps

       4   Change the set-up of the ripple tank so that there is just one point source.

Place some metal strips across the tank to create two gaps, or slits, through which the waves must move.

Observe the effect of the gaps on the shape of the waves.

Try to sketch the pattern onto a sheet of paper placed on the screen.

       5   Change the separation of the gaps and the gap size.

Observe, and sketch, any change in the effect on the waves.

Equipments

•    ripple tank with 2 point and 2 plane dippers水池

•    DC motor (or specialised vibrating source)直流电源或其它振源

•    stroboscope lamp (optional)频闪观测仪(可选)

•    power pack (adjustable power supply) and connecting wires电源和导线

•    retort stand支架

•    screen (or plain paper if screen is not available)屏幕

•    metal strips of varying lengths各种长度金属条

 

 

Practical 2

Colour addition and subtraction 色光叠加原理和减法原理

Aim

To investigate colour subtraction and addition.探究光的叠加原理和减法原理

Method

Part I: Subtraction—reflected light

1     Use the cardboard box as a small darkroom.

Cut a hole in one end through which you can shine a light source, and a viewing hole in the top or side through which you can observe the results.

2     Cover the hole for the light source with one of the coloured filters and shine the light source through it and into the box. Temporarily stick one of the coloured cards on the inside of the box at the opposite end and re-cover the box.
(A loop of sticky tape on the back of the coloured cards will hold the cards in place in the box.)

Observe the apparent colour of the coloured card and record your observations.

3     Repeat step 2 for each combination of colours.

Part II: Subtraction—transmitted light

4     Using the spectroscope, look at a white light source and describe or draw what you see.

5     Place a coloured filter between the spectroscope and the light source and describe what you see through the spectroscope now. Which colours are being transmitted? Which colours are being absorbed?

6     Repeat step 2 with the other filters and record all your results in a suitable table.

Part III: Addition—overlapping colours

7     Cut three holes in one side of a cardboard box: one hole for each of red, green and blue light sources.

Stick a piece of white card to the opposite side to act as a viewing screen.

Make sure you also cut a viewing hole in the top.

8     Direct three light sources through the three holes so that the lights overlap on the screen.

Once adjusted, fit two of the light sources with differently coloured filters.

Note the colour they produce in the overlap region on the screen.

Try all the available combinations of two filters.

9     Using the three light sources, test the red/blue/green combination of filters.

Part IV: Addition—Newton’s colour wheel

10    For best results, the wheel should be fairly new.

Shine a bright light on the colour wheel and rotate it rapidly. Record what you observe.

11    If time permits, make up colour wheels with other combinations of colours.

List the colours used and the colours produced.

Equipments

Parts I, II: Subtraction

•    small cardboard box纸板盒

•    red, blue and green cards and filters红蓝绿纸卡和滤镜

•    five 200 mL beakers烧杯

•    light source光源

•    spectroscope (optional)分光镜(选用)

Part III, IV: Addition

•    small cardboard box纸板盒

•    3 ray boxes, slide projectors or an overhead projector投影仪

•    red, green, blue, yellow, orange, cyan and magenta filters各色滤镜

•    light source光源

•   Newton’s colour wheel (optional)牛顿色相环(可选)

 

 

Practical 3

Polarisation effects with light 光的偏振

Aim

To determine the relationship between the intensity of light transmitted through a polariser and the angle of polarisation.探究偏振角度与偏振光强度之间的关系

Method

1     Clamp the two polarisers in position in a line with the meter or sensor, so that both polarisers are between the light source and the meter or sensor.

Align both polarisers so that their zero markings are aligned.

If you looked through the pair of polarisers, the minimum of light should be transmitted.

The light source should be as close as possible to one of the polarisers, and the meter or sensor should be as close as possible to the other to reduce reflected light.

  • Read the light intensity. Record this value and the angle (zero).
  • Rotate the polariser closest to the light meter by 10° and record the new intensity reading.
  • Rotate the polariser another 10°, so that it now reads 20°, and record the angle and light intensity. Continue this procedure until you have completed one full revolution (360°).

Equipments

•    two polarisers偏振片

•    optics bench or stands and clamps to hold polarisers操作台和夹钳

•    protractor量角器

•    light meter, or light sensor and interface for electronic measurement测光表或光强传感器

•   light source光源

 

 

Unit 3

 

Practical 1

Motion on an inclined plane 斜面运动试验

Method

1   Set up the track as shown in the diagram, raising the end of the track where the trolley is to start by about 10 cm.

2   Pull the trolley up to the top of the track and mark the initial position where the trolley will be released from rest.

3   Release the trolley from rest and use the stopwatch to time how long it takes the trolley to hit the end stop. The person who releases the trolley should also operate the stopwatch. Repeat this measurement 5 times (with different people doing the timing). Record all the values in a suitable table.

4   Lower the end of the track by 1 cm and measure the time five times.

5   Repeat the experiment for a total of seven angles, lowering the track in increments of 1 cm for each new angle.

Equipments

•    dynamics trolley with mass小车

•    stopwatch秒表

•    dynamics track or board at least 1 metre long长轨道

•    metre rule尺

•    graph paper作图纸

(DIS can be used) 可以选用DIS系统

 

 

 

Practical 2

Investigating circular motion in a vertical plane 垂直平面的圆周运动

Method

1   Tie the string to the mass and measure the length of the string to the centre of the mass. Mark the string in 20 cm segments.

2   To reduce the friction between the string and your fingers, fasten the alligator strip at one of the 20 cm marks. This will give a better defined radius of the mass and reduces friction, allowing a more constant speed of rotation dramatically improving accuracy.

3   Rotate the mass in a vertical circle. With practice, you can feel the change in tension in the string at the top of the circle

4   Time the period of rotation for 20 revolutions and then find the average period. Repeat 5 times for a particular radius.

Equipments

•    string细绳

•    small mass小球

•    alligator clip夹子

•    stopwatch秒表

•    metre rule尺

 

 

 

Practical 3

Predict the range of a projectile 预测抛射运动的距离

Aim

predict the range (that is, the horizontal distance travelled) of a projectile with a known initial horizontal velocity, and then to test the prediction.已知水平初始速度,预测抛射距离并试验验证

Method

Initially, the pendulum bob is attached to a retort stand with a fine thread, and is held at an angle before being released. The initial height is measured before the pendulum is released. As the pendulum reaches the bottom of its swing, the thread is cut by a carefully placed razor blade. The change in height of the pendulum bob can be used to determine the amount of gravitational potential energy that has been converted into kinetic energy of the pendulum bob. The kinetic energy, in conjunction with its mass, can be used to calculate the velocity of the pendulum at the moment the thread is cut. As the pendulum is moving horizontally at this point, this is the initial horizontal velocity of the pendulum bob.

Equipment settings

Alternative equipment settings (PASCO)